Hormonal stimulation (donor, surrogate) – various hormones are used to stimulate the ovaries of a donor to produce and mature multiple oocytes (eggs). The preparation of the endometrium of the uterus of a surrogate is also being stimulated by hormones.
IVF – In Vitro Fertilization or fertilization in glass, outside the body. Progressive method to help infertile couples using special technology and multidisciplinary knowledge.
ICSI – Intra Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection, nowadays used in most (or all) cases in the laboratory to avoid failed fertilization and to maximize the number of fertilized eggs.
Time-lapse imaging – non-invasive technology helping to choose the best embryo for embryo transfer based on their morphology and development during the whole time of culturing in the laboratory starting from ICSI (Day0 – Day6). This technology is not able to screen the genetics of an embryo, which means even the most beautiful one can be genetically abnormal. Some clinics provide online streaming so you can watch your embryos grow while sitting on your sofa at the other end of the world.
Embryo biopsy/Assisted hatching – AH is usually done on Day3, a laser is used to make a small hole in the protective shell of the embryo. On Day5 when the embryo is becoming blastocyst and starts hatching out, it partially hatches out through this hole. Followed by embryo biopsy on Day5 and/or Day6, a few cells of the future placenta are being removed from the embryo and sent for genetic testing.
PGS/Sex selection – Pre-implantation Genetic Screening is, a genetic method to screen and examine all 46 chromosomes in selected cells recovered from embryo biopsy. It is highly recommended to ensure that only a healthy embryo is transferred which rapidly increases the chance of pregnancy. With the results, if these biopsy samples are genetically normal, also the gender of each embryo can be seen.
Vitrification/FET – vitrification is the most effective method of cryopreservation (freezing) of embryos. Frozen embryos can be kept in liquid nitrogen for many years. Transportation of frozen embryos worldwide is nothing unusual. FET as Frozen Embryo Transfer starts with warming (thawing) of the frozen embryos and embryo transfer happens usually within an hour afterward.